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INFLUENCE ON TURKEY OF SYRİAN REFUGEES

ABSTRACT
Turkey is known as helpful country in the world. When we examine history of Turkey, it tried to assist the countries which face natural disaster, wartime,health problems.Therefore, Syria which is neighbouring country.While Syrians are exposed to violence due to Arab Spring, Turkey never behaves indifferent against Syria.However; Turkey is influenced negative by openin the boundary of Turkey.In this paper emphasizes that aids of Turkey againt Syrian refugees, providing opportunities as well as negative effects.
History of Syria War in 2011
Small peaceful protests started on 26 January 2011 in Syria and escalated to an ongoing internal conflict. The wave of Arab uprisings that began with the Tunisian revolution of January 2011 reached Syria in mid-March, when residents of the small southern town of Dara’a took to the streets to protest the torture of students who had put up anti-government graffiti. The unrest spread to other parts of the country. Protesters demand reforms, the ouster of President Bashar al-Assad, allowing political parties, equal rights for Kurds, and broad political freedoms, such as freedom of the press, speech and assembly. The Syrian government has made several concessions, though widely considered trivial by protesters. On 21 April, the government formally declared the repeal of an emergency law that had been in place since 1963 and which allowed the government sweeping authority to suspend constitutional rights. The same month the Syrian government launched the first of what became a series of crackdowns, sending tanks into restive cities as security forces opened fire on demonstrators. Security forces used tanks and snipers to force people off the streets. Water and electricity were shut off and security forces began confiscating flour and food in particularly restive areas. The conflict is complicated by Syria’s ethnic divisions. The Assads and much of the nation’s elite, especially the military’s, belong to the Alawite sect (Nuṣayrī), a small minority in a majority Sunni country. By October, estimates for the death toll ranged above 2,900, and human rights groups said that well over 10,000 people had been arrested. Syrian dissidents formally established the Syrian National Council which included representatives from the Damascus Declaration group, a pro-democracy network; the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, a banned Islamic political party; various Kurdish factions; the Local Coordination Committees, a group that helps organize and document protests; and other independent and tribal figures.
The violence in Syria has caused millions to flee their homes. In August 2012, the United Nations said more than one million people were internally displaced, and, in September 2013, the UN reported that more than 6.5 million Syrians had been displaced, of whom 2 million fleeing to neighboring countries, 1 in 3 of those refugees (about 667,000 people) seeking safety in tiny Lebanon (normally 4.8 million population). Others have fled to Jordan, Turkey, and Iraq. Turkey has accepted +1.000.000 (2014) Syrian refugees, half of whom are spread around a cities and dozen camps placed under the direct authority of the Turkish Government. Satellite images confirmed that the first Syrian camps appeared in Turkey in July 2011, shortly after the towns of Deraa, Homs, and Hama were besieged. In September 2014, the UN stated that the number of Syrian refugees had exceeded 3 million. According to the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Sunnis are leaving for Lebanon and undermining Hizbullah’s status. The fleeing Syrian refugees has caused the “Jordan is Palestine” threat to be diminished due to the onslaught of new refugees in Jordan. Additionally, “the West Bank is undergoing emigration pressures which will certainly be copied in Gaza if emigration is allowed.” Greek Catholic Patriarch Gregorios III Laham claims more than 450,000 Syrian Christians have been displaced by the conflict.
The violence in Syria caused to immigrate another country.Neighboring countries endeavor to support the Syria refugees. Syria citizens can escape from war owing to helpful countries which are Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq. These countries provide shelters, job opportunities, health services for Syria refugees.
Turkey establishes Camps for Refugees
According to a newspaper which is “Over 1 million Syrians have taken refugee in Turkey since the outbreak of the crisis in March 2011.”Around 30 percent of these live in 22 government-run camps near the Syrian-Turkish border. The rest do their best to make ends meet in communities across the country.
Such a response has come with substantial cost, and by May 2013 the Turkish government had spent around $1.5 billion (€1.6 billion) on accommodating Syrian refugees. The rising price tag has now forced the Turkish government to seek international support for an operation that, at the beginning, was guarded as a government responsibility. Now UNHCR and other groups have much greater access to the refugees than they did at the beginning, but the Turkish government still maintains a large degree of control over the camps.
Turkey has accorded temporary protection to Syrians on their territory, which precludes forced repatriation, however legally they are not refugees in Turkey but ‘guests’. Turkey is a signatory to the 1951 UN Convention on Refugees, however because of a geographic exception written into the original document it is only obligated to accept refugees from European nations. Thus, Syrians in Turkey do not have access to all the legal safeguards accorded to refugees elsewhere, and those seeking permanent resettlement must look to a third nation. Turkey long-maintained an open border for fleeing Syrians, although that policy has changed somewhat as the crisis has grown. For this reason, a substantial number of people are now camped on the Syrian side of the border, waiting for an opportunity to cross.
In September 2014, attacks by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant against Kurdish towns and villages near the Turkish border caused hundreds of thousands of Kurds to flee to Turkey. Although Turkey conflicts about refugee with its citizens, it never withdraw its support for refugees. Turkey opens the border for refugees and it enables refugees to have lots of opportunities.
Number of Registered Syrians
Following the crossing of about 250 Syrians into the Hatay region towards the end of April 2011, Turkish foreign minister Ahmet Davutoğlu held a meeting and announced that Turkey is ready to allow those Syrians in “who are not happy at home.” Following the regime’s violent attack against Jisr al Shughur, more than 7,000 Syrians arrived in Turkey in June, 2011. By early September 2011, Turkey had set up six refugee camps that were hosting about 7000 refugees.By December 2011, there were 8,000 registered Syrians. By 15 January 2012, the number had reached 9,500 and by the end of February 2012, it had almost reached 10,500. By mid April, 2012, the numbers had more than doubled to reach 24,000. By July 2012, there were 35,000 registered Syrians. This, then, shot up to 80000 by the end of August 2012. By mid October, there were 100,000 and by mid-November,there were 120,000 registered Syrians. The latest figure is for 156,000 registered Syrians in Turkey. These numbers do not include those Syrians who have rented apartments outside of camps, typically in cities.
There are no reliable figures as to how many Syrians are residing in cities. Even though UNHCR states that 60,000-70,000 Syrians live in cities, my observations and interviews suggest a much higher number. In November 2012, the Turkish Interior Ministry passed a law that allows those Syrians who entered the country with passports to extend their stay to one year. The Turkish finance minister stated that the government spent 533 million Turkish lira to cover the needs of Syrians through 2012.
According to rapor of “Turkish Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency”; Meanwhile, the number of Syrian refugees living outside the camps has increased, and now possibly stands at more than 100,000 according to local estimates. Unregistered Syrian refugees are mostly located in Hatay, Kilis, Gaziantep and Sanliurfa, which are all border provinces in Turkey.
Numbers are very roughly estimated as 50,000 Syrians in Hatay, 30,000 in Kilis, 20,000 in Gaziantep and 20,000 in Sanliurfa. A detailed profiling of the movement patterns have not been conducted yet. According to Support to Life (www.supporttolife.org) assessments and the data obtained from local sources, the breakdown of the population is as follows:
Kirikhan:
Over 1,000 Syrian families according to local sources.
Before 25 December, Kirikhan was hosting approximately 266 families (1,321
individuals) according to STL assessments. Therefore, it is estimated that Kirikhan district could now be hosting approximately 5,000 Syrian refugees.
Reyhanli:
According to local contacts in Reyhanli, the refugee population in the district has experienced dramatic increases since mid-December 2012. Before 15 December, the estimated number of Syrian refugees in Reyhanli was 15,000. The number of refugees is now estimated to be as high as 35,000 (6,000 to 7,000 families).
Yayladağı:
STL has assessed 305 families (1,586 individuals) in the Yayladagi district. Altinözü:
STL has claimed 421 families (2,315 individuals).
Antakya Centre:
STL has estimated that there are only 58 families in Antakya city center, but this is because there are difficulties in tracking the families. Hence, STL suspects that there is a huge information gap with regard to the refugees in Antakya center.

Camp conditions

Upon entering Turkey, Syrians are registered by the Turkish Disaster and Emergency Management (AFAD) officials. Displaced Syrians then are taken to one of the refugee camps where they are given ID cards. The camps, which are run by the Turkish government in collaboration with AFAD and the Turkish Red Crescent, provide Syrians with access to services that cover the basic survival needs. Syrians staying in the camps receive free food and health care.UNHCR provides only technical support to the government for registration, identification of vulnerable groups and to adopt a community based approach in the camps. Since 2011, UNHCR has donated 28 million dollars in in kind assistance. As a sign of solidarity, UNHCR has also appealed to the international community to generate aid for displaced Syrian people.
Even though many Syrians admit that the conditions of the Syrians in Turkey are much better than in Lebanon and Jordan, those residing in the camps have numerous complaints about camp conditions. Even though food is delivered three times a day, Syrians state that most of the time the food is not edible and that there have been numerous cases of food poisoning. Syrians have demanded that they be given the ingredients and they have said that they can then cook for themselves. However, the camp authorities have rejected this request, pointing to the danger of fire in tents.Syrians also have complaints about the distribution of basic goods such as soaps, toothpaste and baby food. Some state that the distribution is not fair and that families who are close to the camp administration receive goods while others do not. There has also been an account of Turkman families receiving more aid than Arab families. It is difficult to confirm or deny this claim though. Turk man families state that they do not receive any special treatment. Due to some tensions between Turkman and Arab Syrians, the Turkish government eventually established a separate camp for the Turkmans. This policy has been criticized by many on the groundsthat it fuels sectarianism within Syrian society.Camp residents also have complaints about translators saying that they are mostly local peasants of Arab origin. They do not speak Arabic well enough to communicate specific terminology concerning serious issues such as health problems to doctors. Camp residents also state that even though all health costs are covered by the Turkish authorities, most of the time there is a delay in supplying medicine and that there are no specialists, just general doctors.Complaints have increased with the winter. Many Syrians have remarked that the tents are not suitable for winter weather and that are flooded each time that there is rain. As a result, some Syrians have decided to go back to Syria even though their lives are under threat. As one of the residents of the Islahiye camps stated: “The only reasons why we endure these awful conditions in the camp is that there are no planes bombing us from above.” Another camp resident has voiced his criticism of the camp conditions by saying that “The camp conditions are great if you don’t mind living like animals, but if you want to live like a human, the conditions are unacceptable.”
Educational Issues of Refugees in Turkey

A few other Turkish and international organizations have conducted
assessmentsto better understand the general needs of urban Syrian refugees in Turkey, particularly near the border with Syria, where a large percentage of Syrians have been migrating. From these assessments it is clear that, in the cities where they were conducted, access to school for urban school age Syrians is limited. However, the main challenges regarding access to education differ. In an evaluation of their cash assistance and community center programsin Kilis and Hatay (cities of Altın zü, Hac paşa, Yaylada,Kırıkhan, Antakya and Reyhanli) the Turkish NGO Support to Life found that access to education is a large concern for their beneficiaries. Those families living close to camps were able to send their children to AFAD primary schools in the camp, but access to university for older students was difficult, if not impossible. Additionally, most of the Syrians interviewed expressed a need for psychosocial support. In Istanbul, IMC and ASAM found that only 17 Percent of school age children were attending school. This is consistent with AFAD’s report on urban and in-camp Syrians. Unlike those barriers identified by UNCHR and UNICEF, the main barrier to education was the need for children to work to support the family. They found that most children over the age of 10 were not in school and instead were working. Other barriers mentioned by respondents included lack of trust or information about the Turkish school system, concerns about safety traveling to and from school, language barriers, and lack of residence permits. In the city of Gaziantepnear the Syrian border, where over 50,000 registered Syrians live, International Medical Corps (IMC) and the Turkish organization ASAM found that only 16 percentof school-age children were attending school (14 percent of girls, and 18percent of boys), which was consistent with their findings in Istanbul and the AFAD report. Of those attending school, 80 Percent attended Syrian schools, 17percent attended public Turkish schools, and 3 percent attendedTurkish private school.

Additionally, the main challenges to education were lack of information, language barriers, and expenses. According to their study, families with children attending Syrian schools pay about 150 TL every 3 months and/or between 50-100 TL fortransportation. For those Syrians in Gaziantep, access to education is a priority only after access to housing, food, and healthcare. Comparing results from Istanbul and Gaziantep, IMC found that Syrians in Istanbul were more likely to prioritize education than those in Gaziantep.
Gaziantep:
An official visit of the Syrian Prime Minister,Nal, al Otari to Turkey in July 2004, marked
the beginning of the relations between the Syrian State Planning Commission and the Turkish State Planning Organization.A regional cooperation program between the two countries was suggested as a result of this visit and the budget of the program was set at 20 million USD to be funded equally by the two countries. Subsequently, the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the Syrian authorized office approved a Memorandum of Understanding to establish a frameworkof cooperation. The first meeting of the regional Cooperation Program Monitoring and Steering Committee was held in Gaziantep in April 2005, during which a Joint Program Document was approved. The documents outlined agreements concerning the funding and application of infrastructure, technical cooperation, capacity developments, culture and tourism projects. The Project Coordination Unit, which has the tasks of implementing the projects, was established in Gaziantep in June 2006. Officials from the Project Coordination Unit have stated during my interviews that they had closer links with the businessmen of Aleppo rather than those of Damascus since Damascus businessmen have closer
relations with the regime and thus benefit more from the “old structure.” They have also stated that the situation in Syria did not have a drastic influence on the economy of Gaziantep since Gaziantep businessmen were able to redirect their trade to Libya and Egypt. They have also stated that Gaziantep has stronger business relations with Iraq and that if such a crisis was to take place in Iraq, then the Gaziantep economy would have collapsed.

Hatay;
economic Dimension: Complaints at the economic level can be categorized as the kind of anti-immigrant discourse which is prevalent in many locations where there has been a huge influx of migrants. The local population criticized the presence of Syrians living in the city based on the argument that they are causing inflation in rent prices. This criticism was common in other cities such as Kilis and Gaziantep, as well. However, some also voiced the view that it was the real estate owners who should be criticized for raising the rents and exploiting Syrians who are in a difficult position to start with. Another complaint at the economic level is that Syrians have become competitors in the labor market and they are causing the lowering of wages. Once again, some locals I interviewed criticized employers rather than Syrians by saying that employers are exploiting refugee labor.

Negative Effects Of Syrian Refugees

While Turkey ,particularly, Ankara was prepared to embrace Syrian refugees,other authoritaries adviced to being careful against Syrian refugees. This is because Syrian refugees cause lots of problems in Turkey.According to ChinaDaily news “We are waiting for a new wave of refugees,” said Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Numan Kurtulmus whose portfolio includes emergency management agency AFAD overseeing refugees in Turkey, adding that Turkey has made necessary preparation for new refugees.However, Turkish analysts believed the refugee problem that poses significant challenges to Turkey’s security, economy and social fabric are not being handled in a serious manner.”First of all, there are legal loopholes and jurisdictional ambiguities on refugees,” Alparslan Akkus, Turkish expert in Ankara, said.He added that so many agencies and ministries have all involved in addressing different aspects of the refugees.”None of them has experienced on refugee matters and there is lack of coordination among all,” Akkus underlined.The analyst suggested that Turkey should immediately establish a new ministry specifically on immigration and refugees.
Sedat Laciner who is professor of international relations emphasized that He warned that terror groups may very well infiltrate into Turkey under the disguise of refugees and may target opposing groups in Turkish soil or attack on Turkish interests directly. Laciner also noted that increasing number of refugees would put huge strain on Turkey’s health, education and social services while helping surge of prices.In fact, the prices of basic food staples and water have recently risen in Turkish town Suruc where Syrian Kurds come to escape attacks by the IS, Turkish daily Zaman reported on Thursday.
Mehmet Seyfettin Erol, the head of Ankara’s International Strategic and Security Research Center (USGAM), said Turkey need the cooperation of regional and global partners in order to cope with growing refugee problem.
He number of Syrian refugees taking shelter in Turkey has reached 1.65 million with the latest influx of refugees fleeing the violent attacks of the terrorist Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).According to the Prime Ministry’s Disaster and Emergency Management Directorate (AFAD), the number of refugees who have arrived in Turkey in only the past few days is around 150,000.Many of the Syrians that fled to Turkey are housed in refugee camps, and others have sought shelter with their relatives or with Turks who have opened up their homes to a couple of families at the same time.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) chief spokeswoman Melissa Fleming said they are preparing for the flight of the entire 400,000 population of Kobane, a Syrian town surrounded by approach ISIL fighters on the three sides. Despite the fact that certain government officials previously claimed that Turkey was ready to meet the massive influx of refugees, it is clear the refugee camps are not able to provide the basic needs for such a huge number of refugees seeking shelter in Turkey. There are around 220,000 refugees living in camps — one-tenth of all the Syrian refugees in Turkey. Civil society groups in Turkey are stepping up their efforts to make sure basic needs are being provided for in the camps. Many groups have taken the initiative to help these refugees and supply basic foodstuffs, especially in the rural areas and villages where AFAD has had difficulty in delivering food and clean potable water to the victims of the crisis. Most of the other Syrians have traveled to other cities in Turkey, mainly İstanbul, Ankara, Mersin and Adana, according to Turkish media reports and many of them have to carry on their lives in dire conditions without accommodation, food and healthcare.Many of those who have gone to cities strive to survive by taking shelter close to their relatives, in abandoned buildings, construction sites, tents in the rural areas, as well as on the streets or in parks .
Assistant Professor Erkan Ertosun, a lecturer at the faculty of economic and administrative sciences at Ankara’s Turgut Özal University, speaking to Samanyolu Haber TV station on a live broadcast, said: “The Syrian refugees living in streets, abandoned buildings or construction areas were able to withstand those conditions during summer. When winter arrives, they will no longer be able to support those conditions.”As well as accommodation problems, the Syrian refugees face difficulties about communicating with local people,finding jobs and healthycare system.
Unfortunately, despite lots of warning, Turkey permited Syrian refugees to live with us.In the present, Syrian refugees pose a threat for Turkey but, according to Authorities, Turkey can encounter some problem in terms of health and economic problems in the future.
BİBLİOGRAPHY
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